Monday, August 8

Literature and Spirituality: Still Thinking

Yoram Raanan
I've had to take a bit of a break on this course for some other work and some family stuff. My nephew Nathan has graduated from high school and this past weekend there was a party for him in Austin and I was able to go. It was nice to see and catch up with my sister and her family, and other friends, all of whom I've not seen since our mother's memorial in October 2019.

So this week is about what others have shared in their thinking about spirituality. I give you no information about each person other than to say that, so far, the only responses I've gotten are from women. Interesting.

I'd given each a bit of background about the course and why I was asking the question, so they all knew the context of the course "Literature and Spirituality" being taught at a Christian college. I'll share their thoughts without commentary and as they were given to me. 
I believe “spirituality” or “spiritual” means someone is open to ideas beyond the physical. They are willing to consider concepts outside of what they can see or prove. More than feelings, spirituality is the ability to embrace what we can not reason. Knowing there is more to life than what can be explained but lacking the “proof." Spirituality is no longer about organized religion but feeling there is more outside of us!
If I'm thinking about it simply as the word and not connected to the course I'd have to say spirituality is a concern with what relates to the non-physical aspects of our life.
The first word that popped in my head was New Age. But in light of the fact that this is a course at a Christian college my thoughts are different. Perhaps a course that discusses how faith informs the reading of literature as well as the authorship of it.
“Spirituality” is a word that raises red flags for me or perhaps I tune in carefully when I see or hear someone using that word now. In the past when I was not reading the Bible regularly I naively assumed someone using that word was referring to belief in the trinity and responding to the presence of the Holy Spirit. These assumptions caused me to overlook other signs, and there were many instances where I was deceived or I deceived myself about intentions and beliefs. Now when I hear “spirituality” I listen more closely for the words/actions that follow and I test all against the Word of God…I now question WITH BOLDNESS and prayer and listen to the Spirit in me to guide me on understanding how that word is being presented. Is it being used in the truth of the Word of God or in the truth of the person uttering it? Often a pause and sit still is required to decipher it and other times it is clear at the utterance. Indeed (as I learned the hard way) there are many spirits one could listen to and follow and all could be the basis of “spirituality” but for me there is only One True Spirit I choose to follow so I’m looking for evidence of the Holy Spirit when I see that word now. If it is used in a context void of the HS I will probably not pursue listening or reading further.
When I hear or see the word “spirituality” I think of that part of every human that longs for connection to a higher power than what we can access through our physical, mental and emotional capacity. As a believer I know the presence of the Holy Spirit fulfills that longing.
I think of basic "spirituality" (with a small 's') as cognizance that "there must be something more" than biological life [brief existence] and death [non-existence]. This "something more" is a domain of existence beyond the physical, material dimensions. It is not constrained by time or space. It possesses/conveys a moral quality [sense of right or wrong] and influences society in ways that are distinct from culture or custom, although it impacts both.
Spirituality: the world’s view, which is anything but Christ, and my view, which is everything in Christ and is Christ. To truly seek first the Kingdom of God. When He permeates everything in and through us.
My first thought on spirituality the essence of the soul which is in one of two camps death or life to me. If its’s not the Holy Spirit, no thanks. Seeing it is a small “s” makes it more like mysticism. At an evangelical college Literature and Spirituality I would want to learn from autobiographies how the Holy Spirit lead ordinary people to reach beyond themselves for the Kingdom.
God inspired and created communication beyond the physical realm. Our individual Spirituality can be utilized to build and bless through God The Father, Jesus Christ The Son or The Holy Spirit OR directed towards evil for the result of death and destruction. We are free to choose how to use our own Spirituality.
Spirituality: the practice of connecting with an unseen, outside influence which will bring about a positive change in one’s life, mainly peaceful and powerful.
Spirituality: any conversation, thought, song or event that includes God.
Whenever I see or hear spirituality I immediately think of the Word of God. Is it used in the context of rightly divining God’s truth. I’m looking for a practical application and/or approach to a spiritual truth. It seems to me that whenever the concept of spirituality is mentioned in the Bible, it almost always refers to something we should be “being” or doing.
The Bible says man is body (material) and soul/spirit (immaterial part). For those that are born again believers, the spirit of a man IS the Holy Spirit - the true identity of a person, his true spirituality. This is not referring to a religion but to a relationship, although coming to understand and appropriate this truth might have come to a person by means of religious truths taught in an Biblically-based organized religion/denomination. For those that are not believers in Jesus Christ a search is on to define/understand/explain the immaterial part of man- my sense of being, my moral compass, my identity. This is when I most often hear or read the word “spirituality” or “spiritual person”. They are looking for their true identity themselves- apart from the God of the Bible, apart from truths taught in an Biblically-based organized religion/denomination.

Again, every response is from a woman and, as you've no doubt noticed, from a Christian perspective and from a few different denominations although each of these women likely identifies as born again. 

What I see consistently through these definitions, if you will, is an expression that one's spirituality emanates from what one believes. That aligns with the research. The last "definition" notes that those who are "spiritual but not religious" (SBNR) are trying to find a source or foundation for their identity.

I've not been able to glean any insights from those of different faiths, but I do wonder if those of other religions have a similar sensibility of what it means to be spiritual. So that sent me on a brief quest. I don't know that Dina Mohammad Basiony speaks for all of Islam, but I did find this interesting. What is also interesting about Islam is that there are specific rituals or spiritual practices that reinforce key pillars of the religion, that are key expressions of a believer's faith. What also intrigues me is that Muslims have also pondered this notion of being spiritual but not religious and that there are academic treatises on spirituality within Islam.

And so a brief foray.

A Muslim woman born in Pakistan and living in New Jersey, Saima Mehboob, wrote about her own spiritual journey. Mehboob writes that at one time she did not have a personal connection to the acts of worship--those rituals of prayer and more that every religion has--

But the concept of spirituality did keep me grounded in my faith. Like others that haven’t found their guiding light but knew it existed, I did believe that we were created for a purpose, the sense that there is something bigger than ourselves. Spirituality focuses on this belief and uses practices like mindfulness and meditation to connect the person’s mind and spirit to central themes of harmony with creation and attaining inner peace.

An academic article on place spirituality, defined as "an attachment to a geographic place or an 'object,'  refers to the three ways a Muslim might "attach to God everywhere and at all times, without consideration of any place, time, or object." I don't want to wander too far off-topic, but I will say I found that article fascinating and the correlations to how we might view spirituality quite profound.

Just as Muslims have specific place spirituality, so do Christians. I know plenty of people who have made their own pilgrimage to Israel. There are millions of Christians who have gone to Israel to walk the believed paths of Jesus, to be in Israel at Easter for the re-enactment of stations of the cross. The cross itself is a spiritual and iconic object for Christians. 

"Spirituality in Islam" is the title of a chapter in a 2020 text titled Essentials of Islamic Studies (2020). The abstract for that chapter states that "[s]pirituality (Ruhhaniyyat) in Islam is defined as the presence of a relationship with Allah that affects the individual’s self worth, sense of meaning, and connectedness with others."

One other site identifies specific practices of Islam. What was interesting to me is that while I know there are some sect differences within Islam that often lead to terrible violence, there seem to be more unifying practices of Islam than divisive ones, which I find intriguing. The practices also remind me of the books I've read about spiritual disciplines in Christianity. What are the spiritual disciplines? Great 
question and I'll note there may be 4, 5, 8, or more. However, there is consistency in the lists. 

The spiritual disciplines themselves are practices that can lead to spiritual growth and deepen a believer's relationship with God. They are those practices in which Christians should engage routinely and regularly to be more connected with God.

What we see is the importance of prayer, meditation, fasting, study, service, confession, worship, guidance, celebration, and fellowship. Nothing surprising other than the fact that Christian disciplines tend to refer explicitly to "submission" whereas Islam seems to emphasize obedience.

So then I took a look at Judaism and not just because my mother's family was and is Jewish so my fractured experience and understanding of Reformed Judaism informed my personal faith journey.

The first article I read is titled "The Four Fundamentals of Jewish Spirituality" and is the sermon of Rabbi Brian Field delivered Erev Rosh Hashanah 2016, which marked the beginning of Rosh Hashanah--the Jewish New Year and the beginning of the Ten Days of Awe (or Repentance) that culminates on Yom Kippur.
Rabbi Field identified four tools to make the connection with God because of one of the most foundational scriptural statements that we are created in the image of God (Gen 1:27). The four are covenant, Torah, mitzvah, and teshuvah.

The Bible speaks often of covenant relationships. Field states that "[c]ovenantal relationships are relationships that matter so much that they shape who we are." Each of us experiences many covenantal relationships within our schools, our churches, our communities, and, of course, our families.

When we think of biblical covenants, we think of the promises God has made us. The covenants with Noah, Abraham, Moses, and David are foundational. Jews do not acknowledge the ultimate salvation covenant in the person of Christ whereas some Christians learn how the Old Testament covenants are fulfilled in Jesus.

An oversimplified explanation of Torah is that it is the books of the Old Testament. The Judaic concept of Torah is a little more than that, but it works for my purposes because it is the fundamental text from which Jews learn about Yahweh and what He expects of His people.

Rabbi Field explains mitzvah this way:
A mitzvah is a specific act at a specific moment.  It is a decision to act or not to act, to do or not to do.  It is an act that in its doing, reinforces the covenantal relationship.  More than a commandment, then, a mitzvah is a covenant–enhancer.

The fourth tool is teshuvah, which means "response" or "to turn." 

Another article shares the definition of spirituality offered by French philosopher Michel Foucault: "the search, practice, the experience by which the subject operates on himself the transformations which are necessary to access the truth." The other thing of particular interest to me from this article is that the author notes we "get almost nothing of Moses's spiritual experience. What we get are the Ten Commandments and all the laws that follow--the fruits of the spiritual experience, not the experience itself."

Yoram Raanan
I think it's true we tend to emphasize only the Ten Commandments and all of the laws, but I think we get far more than we realize and now I have to spend more time with Exodus 19 and Exodus 20. I think we get a glimpse of Moses's spiritual experience, and maybe more than a glimpse.

What's special about Jewish spirituality? There are more than two "signature marks of Jewish spirituality" listed through that link, but I'd like to focus on two. First, spirituality is "a means to fulfill the purpose for which you were created." Second, the Jewish concept of God is "both personal and transcendent. G-d is never defined." Judaism tends not to forget that God is infinite, which is why they might refer to Him as "The Infinite." It's harder to make your God human-sized when you think of Him as infinite.

I notice several things but these two come to mind first:

  • Most people seem to understand spirituality as the connective essence between a person and God.
  • We connect to God through our understanding and engagement with Scripture, through personal prayer and meditation, through the observance of whatever rituals or practices are elemental for that religion--fasting, worship, confession, etc.
I am struck by the reminder that too often human beings limit God or seem to try to make Him a puppet of our prayers and desires. I think I start contemplating God every day as "The Infinite," I might have a much more profound sensibility of who He is. 

Christians are the only ones who speak of the Trinity, but I wonder if we too often do the Spirit of The Infinite an embarrassing disservice. Back to John and Acts.

For now, then, I'll close with this from Rabbi Sandy Eisenberg Sasso:
Religion is the container for the life of the spirit. It is the gravity that anchors spirit to earth, translating the vision of the soul into the responsibility of the individual. In the best of all possible worlds, spirituality and religion are partners. The soul’s most profound experiences with a presence greater than the self are given form and articulation through liturgy, ritual and moral law. Religious forms, in turn, remain constantly open to the renewal of sacred moments. If spirituality at its best lifts us up, religion at its best keeps us rooted. Religion can test spiritual vision in the crucible of community and history. Spirituality can keep religion from forgetting the experience that formed its story. Religion keeps spirituality from selfishness; it reminds us of our obligations. Spirituality keeps religion from absolutism; it reminds us that the breath of God blows through each and every human soul.

Thursday, July 28

Literature and Spirituality: Crafting a Point of View

I didn’t want to wait a week for this post because I don’t want to get ahead of myself, which is a really weird phrase when you think about it. Don’t think about it now though I will say that reading about and trying to process what we’re learning because of the James Webb Telescope plus the lost Covid years are messing up my thinking about my own time-space continuum.

My process so far:

  • Review a syllabus for the Literature and Spirituality class.
  • Note the books with which I’m familiar and the ones I don’t know; eliminate some titles based on those I do know because if I’m not interested in reading or re-reading them, I’ll never encourage students to read them.
  • Look up the ones I don’t know to figure out if I want to know them then, based on that “research,” order said books through Thriftbooks or an at least good condition copy through Amazon.
  • Skim some of those books once they arrive; regret some purchases and not others. That’s why I buy used, but also note that some of the regrets may be partially okay so have to figure out if I can find legit PDFs for at least some chapters because I’ve learned we don’t always have to read the whole book. I won’t say how many years it took me to appreciate that as an option.
  • Read articles I’ve found and determine which have useful and applicable information as opposed to “Wow, that’s really interesting” information that I’ll be tempted to include anyway just because I found it interesting. (I’m not alone in this; you know who you are.)
  • Review the responses from friends and colleagues. Make notes. Reflect on my own ideas about spirituality.
  • Write blog posts to help me process.
  • Start fiddling with introductory PowerPoint presentations for students.
  • Based on my reading, these are some of my thoughts about spirituality and what it means or implies. I need to point out that just as my thinking (and writing) often rambles, so does my research. I might be hot on the trail of one thing or idea and get distracted or sidetracked by something else. In this case, it was Nicholas Cusa and Giordano Bruno because others kept mentioning them.

    I’ve created a Padlet timeline to help me track, well, whatever I find. It’s helping me and may help my students. I'll continue to add to it as I discover and learn.

    Where I started

    For me, my first thought was that spirituality is an expression of what I value and how I want to live. That was the first pass and somewhat validated by my research, but there I am getting ahead of myself. Then I started thinking about what informs how I want to live, which reminded me of Francis Schaeffer’s How Should We Then Live? The Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture (1976). (A movie was made; I’ve never watched it. You can find the whole 4-hour-plus movie through Vision Video or the first episode here You might also find this 2016 assessment or revisiting of Schaeffer’s work interesting, too, especially in light of what’s going on in the world today

    But I have to go back a bit further for those of you who don’t know me. I became a Christian in late 1977, so after I graduated from college. This will be an abbreviated version of my conversion story. Let’s just say that I had fun in college and that academics were important but not a priority. I started working as a bookkeeper for a small software company then located in Satellite Beach, FL (I was born and grew up in Florida. Oldest of two. Family life complicated.) There was one other single woman there; she was a programmer. We became friends. She invited me to church and though my family and I had gone to church of a different denomination, I’m quite certain that was the first time I heard the Gospel. She and her family were incredibly patient with me, encouraging me to ask my thousands of questions and process my doubts. Roughly nine months later, I was born again. Yep, I find that weirdly symbolic as well. Was my life immediately transformed? Yes, in some ways, but certainly not completely. I had so much to unlearn and then learn. My responding to the altar call that day and then being baptized was only the beginning of my very wobbly journey to understanding what it means to be spiritual, but not religious. Hold that thought, and probably for a few blog posts because I’m sure I’ll keep coming back to that idea of being spiritual but not religious.

    So what informs my understanding of spirituality and how I want to live is my relationship with God, my understanding of who He is and who I am in relationship with Him. My spirituality is directed or guided by my understanding of the Holy Spirit and His (long, long-suffering) work in and through me. What I value is not what others tell me to believe or what they believe is true about God or the Bible, but what the Spirit guides me to think and test and process based on what I read in the Bible and what others teach me. But no one person—theologian, author, or pastor—defines my faith and spirituality. After all, those theologians, authors, and pastors are human beings and, therefore, fallible. They each have their own cognitive, spiritual, and religious biases.

    Faith vs. Religion vs. Spirituality

    I know we’re clawing our way to understanding spirituality, but I think many trip over “faith” and “religion.” I’m going to simplify my definitions. There is a lot of research, interestingly much of it secular, about these terms.

    And so, for me, religion is how we practice our faith; that is, the rituals, the practices, and the values of the denomination or the church someone attends. I grew up in a church with specific liturgies for each Sunday. There were certain things we did at certain times and in response to certain things. In other denominational experiences I’ve had, there are still routines as we follow the order of the service: when we sing, when we pray, when we hear the sermon or homily, when and how we have communion, etc. Practicing Jews have their rituals and that often depends on their affiliation because Orthodox Jews have rituals that are different from Reformed Jews, etc. Muslims pray five times a day and have specific guidelines for those prayers. You get the idea.

    My faith, however, is personal. Most Christians know Hebrews 11:1-3:

    Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. Indeed, by faith our ancestors received approval. By faith we understand that the world were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was made from things that are not visible (NRSV).
    Now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see. This is what the ancients were commended for. By faith we understand that the universe was formed at God’s command, so that what is seen was not made out of what was visible (NIV).
    Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. For by it the elders obtained a good testimony. By faith we understand that the [worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible (NKJV).

    But I think we have to look at all of Hebrews 11 and then all of Hebrews 12 and Hebrews 13, and in whatever translation you like. I think these chapters of the Bible help me understand what it means to express my faith—my belief in who God is and my relationship with Him.

    When I attend a church service, the expression of my faith might be in how I interact with and engage in those routines and practices. And if I don’t agree with the values of that denomination, I likely won’t be in a church of that denomination because I won’t feel connected.

    Now that’s just me. You don’t have to agree with any of this, but I beg you to think about it.

    That brings me back to spirituality: how I believe I should live my life and how I know how to do that. One of my favorite verses in Scripture is Isaiah 30.21: “Whether you turn to the right or to the left, your ears will hear a voice behind you, saying, “This is the way, walk in it” (NIV). But because I don’t like to take a verse out of context, just go take a minute and read all of Isaiah 30. Yes, all of it. In whatever translation you like.

    Because this is how I believe faith and spirituality intersect, maybe even collide. I believe, like Kabir (and that may really mess with your head), that God is “the breath inside the breath.” I don’t care if you believe the Bible is or is not the inerrant Word of God. I don’t care if you believe the Bible is a fable or anything else.

    My faith in who God is informed by Scripture, absolutely. But I also believe that God speaks to me through His word differently than He does anyone else. Why? Because of Isaiah 43, specifically Isaiah 43:1-13, but also all of it. Because of Psalm 139. All of it. Because of Romans 12. All of it.

    How I personally respond to, embrace, believe, absorb, think about, pray about any and all of those chapters and verses is part of my faith. How I act or change my behaviors and how I live because of my response, embrace, thoughts, prayers—my soul response—is my spirituality. Perhaps what others might call living out their faith.

    Next time I’ll share what some of my friends and colleagues have said about spirituality and how that, plus my research, is shaping my thinking. If I have time, I’ll talk a bit about some of the texts though that may have to wait for subsequent posts.

    And just remember that I'm crafting my point of view, so I may as yet change my mind. The journey continues.

    Sunday, July 24

    Literature and Spirituality: Some of the Research

    I know. For some of you, the word “research” caused a frisson of excitement; for some, not so much. I did the academic research because I’m curious about stuff like this and I hoped I’d get more insight into the words “religion” and “spirituality.” 

    Herewith some of the research I found at least somewhat useful with a non-style guide form of annotation. The list is in alphabetical order by author so not necessarily by the resources most useful to me although the length and content of the annotation should be indicative of something akin to that.

    Lincoln, Andrew T. “Spirituality in a secular age: From Charles Taylor to study of the Bible and spirituality.” Acta Theologica, vol 31, no. 1, 2011,

    A Secular Age is a 2007 book by philosopher Charles Taylor based on a series of lectures. In it Taylor marks and discusses how “the place of religion in our societies has changed profoundly in the last few centuries.”

    Lincoln asserts that while most people discuss spirituality in terms of lived experience but struggle to explain it, Taylor asserts “the lived experience of spirituality is through the notion of the social imaginary that shapes it” and that the social imaginary is “the way people imagine their lives and their worlds” (75). Lincoln goes on to try to explain that more thoroughly, but my brain stopped processing because it read like “name it and claim it” theology to me. It may be more than that, but my intellectual and emotional response was very much like when someone was trying to explain how to calculate the area under an imaginary line. 

    McClendon, Adam. “Defining the Role of the Bible in Spirituality: ‘Three Degrees of Spirituality’ in American Culture. Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care, vol. 5, no. 2, 2012, pp. 207-225.

    McClendon, like many of the authors I found, situated his study of spirituality in context of Christianity and the Bible. However, McClendon stepped back to consider spirituality in an American cultural context.

    McClendon’s own research helped him understand the plasticity of what people mean when they say “spirituality.” He references The Millennials: Connecting to America’s Largest Generation (Rainer and Rainer, 2011) and observes

    nearly 75 percent of the Millennial Generation3 con- sider themselves more spiritual than religious. This move to separate spirituality from religion seems partly due to the fact that being religious, in its most basic sense, involves the acknowledgment of that from which one derives ultimate value or meaning. Since many “spiritual” people do not acknowledge the source from which they derive value, the push has been made to divorce spirituality from religion in the formal sense that spirituality might inherently imply religion. The problem is that spirituality in its very nature implies a religious context. Unfortunately, such people refuse to see that their failure to acknowledge the source(s) from which they derive value and meaning in life does not mean that such a source(s) does not exist. This concept of deriving ultimate value and meaning is basic to religious principles and impacts all of life [emphasis mine]. All actions in life flow from a religious foundation in the sense that a set of beliefs, however remote, underlie all actions. Those beliefs are inherently religious. Nevertheless, despite the cur- rent trend to divorce religion from spirituality and the persistent argument concerning the validity of that attempt, the fact remains that today’s American culture uses the notion of spirituality in a broad context and is increasingly confused about its intended meaning (208).

    From a Christian and/or biblical perspective, perhaps some are confused about the intended meaning of the word “spirituality,” but I take exception to that as it sounds as though McClendon believes there is only one way to consider, examine, and/or apply whatever spirituality means.

    I took a lot of notes from McClendon’s work as he considered not only the history of the word “spirituality” and the three degrees: general, Christian, and biblical. More on those in next week’s post; this article gave me an interesting framework with which to work.

    Steensland, B., Wang, X., & Schmidt, L. C. “Spirituality: What Does it Mean and to Whom?” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, vol. 57, no. 3, 2018, pp. 450–472.

    This article was another comparative exploration of religion, religious commitment, and the meaning of spirituality. And I learned there is a Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. I’ll just leave that there. I will also note that for the data geeks among you, this article is chock full of tables and charts of the statistical kind. For those of us for whom phrases like “regression model” and “collinearity problem” and “independent variables” do not spark joy, I’ll fast forward to the discussion section in which the authors addressed what they called the “elements of spirituality,” “classes of spirituality,” and “social influences on spirituality” (468-471). I’ll first give you some information about the study and then sum up what I found to be key points as I thought about my class.

    The study was fielded in May 2016. The final sample size was 1,038 with a 59% percent response rate (454). There is, of course, more information about the study and how it was conducted in the article itself. These folks are supposed to be good at what they do and their research was affirmed by a peer-reviewed journal and so I’ll lean into the data results. As to what I found interesting and useful:

  • “Forty-one percent of descriptions [of spirituality] referenced God and 21 percent contained some other type of reference to a higher being’ (468).
  • “Fewer than 4 percent of respondents explicitly defined spirituality in juxtaposition to religion” which may mean the “’religions versus spirituality’ binary” referred to by “scholars of religion” isn’t a thing for the rest of us (468).
  • “Lay people on the whole see spirituality as distinct from religion but not as intrinsically defined in relation to it, either negatively or as coterminous” (468).
  • “People’s conceptions of spirituality are not idiosyncratic; they flow from social location and experience” (469).
  • “Attendance at worship services is associated with having a relationship with God and ethical action. When it comes to religious traditions, evangelical Protestants and the unaffiliated are the most distinctive, especially in seeing spirituality as having a relationship with God or as holistic connection. The ‘spiritual but no religious,’ while not a religious tradition, . . . are much more likely to define spirituality in terms of holistic connection and ethical action, and much less likely, unsurprisingly, in terms of organized religion” (469-470).
  • One study found a connection between age and degree of spirituality whereas these authors found a connection “between age and type of spirituality.” Gen X seems to be the inflection point with younger people being more holistic, less theistic while Boomers are more traditional and Millennials more distinctive in their views (470).
  • “Spiritual views rooted in theism, for instance, could incline people toward a political ideology more associated in the public mind with a commitment to transcendent authority” (470). The authors note more research is required to understand the directional influence of spirituality and political ideology.
  • Studies have shown “how thoroughly political polarization has saturated American life” (470). We won’t be discussing this in class, though.
  • Schneiders, Sandra M. “Biblical Spirituality.” Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology, vol. 70, no. 4, Oct. 2016, pp. 417–430,

    Sr. Schneiders is professor emerita at the Jesuit School of Theology at Santa Clara University. As an aside, I find it interesting that so many studies about spirituality have Catholic influences. Just an observation. Sr. Schneiders gets straight to the point when she states that defines Christian spirituality as “the lived experience of Christian faith” (417). She goes on to assert
    in my understanding, all Christian spirituality is intrinsically biblical in some sense of the term, and the Bible is always related in some way, explicitly or implicitly, to any spirituality that can be called Christian. What I will be exploring here is not a theoretical proposition but what it means to say that Christian spirituality is biblical (417).
    She ascertains that her purpose in writing is to explore “how the Bible functions, or how it is engaged, to promote the lived experience of God in Christ down through the ages in diverse individuals and communities. How does Scripture give rise to and shape the faith of believers?” (418). With that, she provides a bridge, I think, between faith and spirituality.

    She spends a bit of time with theology and theopoetics. Schneiders notes that theopoetics is “about experiencing God, or making God and the things of God real in experience, primarily through aesthetic [participative] mediation” (424). She also makes two fascinating analogies as she investigates biblical spirituality: one to a symphony and another to drama.

    It is the dramatic one that I found most interesting because of the point she made about how transformative seeing a play can be as the audience is transported to a “change of world” (429). Schneiders states that “[l]iteral experience is not so much replaced by the imaginative experience [of the play] as suffused with it, illuminated by it, transformed by it” (429). Distance and time, she observes, can be effectively suppressed as the audience is immersed in the play—its story, its characters, and its setting.

    Sr. Schneiders asserts the same can be true when we engage with a biblical text. I don’t think she means just read the text dutifully, but to sit down with the text and be in the presence of God. She doesn’t say it but seems to intimate that the engagement might be waiting on the Holy Spirit. She states

    The reader is not reading about something that happened in Judea in the first century but participating aesthetically in the dynamics of revelation occurring in the here and now. This can happen in numerous and various ways: through personal prayer or lectio divina (meditative reading of Scripture), in prolonged retreat experiences, in the doing or hearing of effective preaching, in the experience of spiritual direction or pastoral care, in the exercise of ministry, in contemplative study, and especially in good liturgy, and indeed, even in the classroom. Through the teaching or lecturing of inspirational teachers or the reading of integrated biblical scholarship, believers (and sometimes non-believers or inquirers) enter the world of revelation, find their own inner landscapes and outer lives illuminated in subtle or shattering ways. They experience various kinds and levels of transformation or conversion. They are not reading “about” things that happened to other people in other times but experiencing in a new way their own consciousness, their own life, in and through the biblical material they are reading. This mystery of transformative con- temporaneity, of participative experience, which is effected by aesthetic or theopoetic engagement, is the substance of biblical spirituality (430).

    van Niekerk, brimadevi. Religion and spirituality: What are the fundamental differences? HTS Theological Studies, vol. 74, no. 3, 2018, pp. 1-11.>

    van Niekerk asks the same two fundamental questions I’ve posed: “What is religion?” and “What is spirituality”? My initial observation is that his answer to the first is much longer than the second.

    van Niekerk takes us back to Cicero who “derived ‘religion’ from relegere, to re-read” (2). He also cites Lactantius who made the connection to religare, “’to bind fast’ or that which binds men and women to one another and to the gods” (2). He observes that religion “has a strong emphasis on community, which is ironic given the tendency in the modern world to think of religion as something private and personal” (2). I have to think more about that observation and how religion is viewed.

    The author later notes that each religion seems to “have a particular language which one has to learn in order to understand them” (3). I remember when I first became a Christian and adopted what I call a new faith practice (next blog post). I had to learn a whole new way of thinking about the performative elements of that church service, but I also had to learn an entire new vocabulary for talking about my faith (which I understand as something different from religion; also next blog post).

    van Niekerk states that Mircea Eliade “has bemoaned the fact that we don’t have a more exact or accurate word for religion that would express the relationship between man and the sacred. The term religion, he says, ‘carries with it a long, although culturally rather limited, history’. His concern relates to how we may ‘indiscriminately’ apply the term to other religions and religious systems such as Buddhism, Confucianism and so on. But he surrenders his need for a new term with a proviso that our definition of religion ‘does not necessarily imply belief in God, gods, ghost, but refers to the experience of the sacred, and, consequently, is related to the ideas of being, meaning, and truth’. Clearly, then, for Eliade, experience is paramount in understanding the concept of religion” (3). I’m not going to read Eliade, but this is helpful.

    Emile Durkheim (1915) is cited and Durkheim noted that religion was often defined by social and psychological functions as what it does or by what it is or “its belief content” (3). van Niekerk quotes Durkheim:

    A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden – beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a church, all those who adhere to them (3).

    There is a lot of useful information and perspective from van Niekerk, and considerably more than I need as goes on to reference a number of scholars before he shifts to his second question: What is spirituality? Much of what van Niekerk presented about spirituality has it rooted in religious practices and expectations. Perhaps taking on an in-depth study of both religion and spirituality was more than van Niekerk was prepared to complete because he seems to give short shrift to spirituality as, perhaps, something too squishy (my word, certainly not his) to try to define.

    Wright, Wendy M. The Spiritual Classics as Spiritual Guides, The Way, 1992, pp. 36-48./

    Dr. Wright is a professor of theology at Creighton University in Omaha, NE. Her bio states that her work focuses “on the Salesian spiritual tradition founded by Francis de Sales and Jane de Chantal.” When I read that, I had to decide how far down the Salesian rabbit trail I might be willing to go. Far enough to do a quick Google Search and learn that it is characterized as “everyday holiness” and is it can be practiced by anyone at any time if not all the time. Father Dailey writes that in “this ‘every day’ context, we grow in holiness to the extent that we become consciously aware and intentional about doing what we routinely do for the love of God.” He quotes de Sales who wrote in the Spiritual Directory:

    They who wish to thrive and advance in the way of Our Lord should, at the beginning of their actions, both exterior and interior, ask for his grace and offer to his divine Goodness all the good they will do.  In this way they will be prepared to bear with peace and serenity all the pain and suffering they will encounter as coming from the fatherly hand of our good God and Savior.  His most holy intention is to have them merit by such means in order to reward them afterwards out of the abundance of his love.

    They should not neglect this practice in matters which are small and seemingly insignificant, nor even if they are engaged in those things which are agreeable and in complete conformity with their own will and needs, such as drinking, eating, resting, recreating and similar actions.  By following the advice of the Apostle, everything they do will be done in God’s name to please him alone.

    This was a useful side trip; in fact, more useful than Dr. Wright’s own work although she did me remind of the historical transformations and evolutions language and, therefore, of the word “spirituality” and that we must always taken into consideration the language of the time.

    Five general observations
    First, I’m more convinced there is less nuance between what many mean by “religion,” “faith,” and “spirituality.”

    Second, perhaps because of my own faith journey, or perhaps because of my cynicism, I’m more convinced that spirituality is an expression of my values, or my faith. That might still be muddy for me so that’s also for the next post.

    Third, as we are roiled by how some want to have very narrow definitions of many things related to or connected to Christianity, I am reminded of a book by J.B. Phillips, Your God is Too Small.

    Fourth, I am reminded of the danger of using one or two Bible verses to make a point. Verses taken out of context can offer a limited or incomplete view of God’s Word, but they can also lead to theological error.

    Fifth, as a Christian, I believe God invites us to a deeper biblical and spiritual understanding of Him. The first seven verses of Psalm 34 are praise about answered prayer. Psalm 34:8 states “Taste and see that the Lord is good; blessed is the one who takes refuge in Him” (NIV). That’s wonderful and is likely often used alone, but given that it follows praise and given what follows to the end of the psalm, it seems this is a pivotal verse as David says, “Hey! This is what happened to me and the same could happen to you if you fear God, if you seek His will, if you “keep your tongue from evil and your lips from telling lies” (v. 13), etc. Psalm 34:22 repeats the use of the word "refuge" and I think what we see in verses 9-21 tell us how we can take refuge. THEN we can also perceive, experience, and see the Lord is good.

    There are commentaries that make Old Testament connections to this psalm and specifically to Psalm 34.8. And there are many ways to make connections to other passages in the Bible. However, people have to be willing to take the time to do that reading (Matthew 6:1-34, Ephesians 6:18, Habakkuk 2), to do that thinking, and to engage in that participative meditation.